(Paspalum lividum) This tall, sod-forming grass grows 20 to 40 inches tall with smooth stems growing from a creeping base, The leaf blades are about 3 inches long and up to 1/4inch wide. Glumes are wedge-shaped, broad and hairy at the tip. This perennial, warm native provides poor grazing for wildlife and livestock. ligulatus) This skeleton-like plant has several to many slender branches growing from a main stem. It invades sandy soil, overgrazed and blown-out areas in areas 2 through 10. frequens) This bunchgrass grows 24 to 48 inches tall with flattened stems and sheaths. (Bouteloua hirsuta) This tufted, erect bunchgrass grows 6 to 30 inches tall, It has hairy glumes with black awns. (Ziziphus obtusifolia) This rigid, intricately branched, thorny shrub grows up to 6 feet tall and is greenish gray. The collar is narrow and continuous. The inflorescence is a panicle made up of several (Quercus virginiana) This 30- to 50-foot tall evergreen has many branches along its strong, central trunk. The prominently ridged upper surface of the blade, It is a perennial, warm, introduced grass that provides fair grazing for wildlife; good grazing for livestock. Male spikelets grow in pairs, fitting into the hollows of the rachis. inflorescence is a large panicle with the branches spreading in The round flower clusters have many tiny yellow blossoms. auricles are 0.5-1.5 mm long and usually blunt but sometimes claw the cultivated species can be found in OMAFRA Publication 811, Agronomy It grows in meadows grazing for wildlife; good grazing for livestock. a very short membrane. The seasonal effects on nutrient composition are illustrated with columns titled spring, summer, and fall. It is adapted to areas 1 through 10 and is an annual, cool, introduced grass that provides fair grazing for wildlife and livestock. Single species include: big and little bluestem, blue grama, sideoats grama, switchgrass, Indian grass, and more. tip. Figure 21a. It grows on upland, sandy soils and invades all overgrazed sites in areas 1 through 10. Introduction Pasture management must emphasize utilization of all feed grown. The collar is narrow. Small, greenish flowers and brownish-black fruits are borne in the axils of the leaves. at the beginning and end of grazing during the growing season.....20 Table 1. (Sorghum halepense) This 36- to 72inch tall bunchgrass grows from extensively creeping, scaly rhizomes. The flat stems and the coarsely tufted panicle. Ladino clover is the tallest growing type but is short lived. panicle with 5 branches at each node of the central axis. Leaflets are distinctly veined, rounded and slightly toothed around the entire margin. 4, below). (Chloris cucullata) This tufted, erect bunchgrass grows 12 to 24 inches tall with ‘ flat, bluish-green stems and sheaths. The panicle is large, open, erect and pyramid-shaped icle axis. (Krameria lanceolata) Thick, woody rootstock produce stems that are ascending and erect or spreading and decumbent, usually 8 to 24 inches long. (Setaria leucopila) This bunchgrass grows 12 to 48 inches tall and has pale green, flattened culms branching at the base and lower joints. Figure 1). Figure 20a. This causes an amino acid deficiency that can be seen as a poor hair coat, a hay belly, poor top line, unsoundness and illness. (Distichlis spicata var. It is thick and leathery, very smooth Taller growing types will tend to be shorter lived and will need to be reseeded periodically. Tanglehead grows on rocky hills and ridges in areas 2, 6, 7 and 10 and is a perennial, warm native that provides poor grazing for wildlife; good grazing for livestock. The panicle resembles lace when mature. The inflorescence is a very This perennial, warm native grows in areas 2, 6, 7 and 10 and provides fair grazing for wildlife; poor grazing for livestock. The stems are round and 60-120 cm tall. Leaves are abundant, 7 to 12 inches long and flat with a heavy midrib on the lower side. (Bouteloua trifida) This 5- to lo-inch tall, tufted bunchgrass grows erect or prostrate from short rootstock. The yellow flowers are borne on a raceme 2 to 4 inches long, Seed pods are 4 to 8 inches long, usually curved and constricted between each seed in the pod. (Poa arachnifera) This upright bunchgrass grows 12 to 36 inches tall with the plant arising from slender, creeping rootstock. and forms an open sod. The twice compounded leaves have eight to 16 divisions with each having 10 to 20 pairs of small, sensitive leaflets. This grass, palatable throughout the year, is frequently overgrazed but responds readily to deferment. Internodes are flattened and the ligule is a conspicuous ring of white hairs. Leaves are on long leaf branches having three leaflets, all being almost sessile. Leaves have resin producing glands, grow in dark green masses and are very slender, thin and sharp pointed. (Andropogon virginicus) This 24- to 48-inch tall bunchgrass grows in small tufts with overlapping flattened sheaths, hairy along the margin of the upper blade surface toward the base. The ligule is a short membrane. Broomsedge bluestem is seldom grazed by any kind of animal. Leaves are opposite with veins that end in the untoothed margins. The small, white or bluish flowers are in open, leafy panicles of elongated spikes or spikelike racemes. of leaves plus the boat-shaped leaf tips. The slim blades and stems have 3 to 7 red, purplish to pale spikes. Figure 5. There is a variety of pasture types in New Zealand, ranging from the high-producing dairy pasture on the plains and easy rolling country to the low-producing, lightly stocked tussock grasslands of the South Island mountains. that usually has an awn-like point at the top. Leaflets are small, narrow and may be rounded or notched at the tip end. is slightly hairy and striated. – The inflorescence Rural If you’re examining a sod-forming grass, the next step is to look at the width of the leaf blades (1⁄2-inch wide, ⁄4-inch wide, or less than 1⁄8-inch wide). Stems usually are erect but sometimes are prostrate with short, hairy nodes. The long, open, oblong panicle (1 to 2 inches] has purplish to pale, 6- to 10-flowered spikelets borne in clusters at the tip end of seed branches. Figure 18a. Seeds are covered with fine, silky hairs and resemble tomato seeds. Male and female spikelets are borne separately. Learn how to identify invasive, noxious, and sometimes poisonous, pasture weeds that commonly infest horse pastures. it has short rhizomes and may be weakly creeping. Foliage turns reddish brown with straw yellow stems on maturity and tastes like molasses. It grows in meadows and valleys, especially in alkaline soil. Black grama is a good source of vitamin A during winter. Alkali sacaton(SporoboIus airoides) This coarsestemmed bunchgrass, 12 to 36 inches tall, grows in tough clumps with no rhizomes. The ligule is a short, white membrane not unlike the smooth brome (Bouteloua curtipendula var. (Lupinus subcarnosus) This graygreen plant produces many stems from a main stem. The nodes are smooth and internodes are 2 to 2½ inches long, flattened and shorter than in common curly mesquite. the bottom. mm wide, 7-25 cm long and flat with a sharp-pointed tip. They are often Weeds are categorized here as broadleaf, grass, or other, and as warm season or cool season. (Ilex vomitoria) This low growing, evergreen shrub has branches up to 20 feet tall. pastures, first check to see whether the grass is sod forming (spreading) or bunching (forms clumps). It is a perennial, warm, native grass that provides poor grazing for wildlife; fair grazing for livestock. Publications The center leaflet is on the extended end of the branch and the other two are almost sessile. The blade is 2-6 mm wide, 5-15 cm long and V-shaped, with a sharp-pointed The stems arise from short, knotty, underground rootstock. The inflorescence Wide leaf blades and edges of the blade constricted wide and 8-40 cm long. The seed are reddish. Western wheatgrass grows most abundantly in moist bottomland in areas 8 and 9 and decreases with overgrazing. (Pisum arvense) Leaves are borne throughout the length of slender, hollow stems that are 24 to 72 inches long. In Pennsylvania, livestock producers use a variety of fencing types to contain their animals as well as manage their pasture areas and move animals from one pasture to another. Flowers are violet, yellow or black, Fruits are light yellow with green stripes when mature. The the tip is sharp-pointed. It grows in areas 2, 3 and 6 and is an annual, cool native that provides poor grazing for wildlife and livestock. The racemes usually spread with maturity. scribnerianum) The 10- to 25-inch tall stems are smooth to harshly hairy, growing from a decumbent base. short, thick tufts. Plants are dusty green and from 12 to 36 inches tall. Agronomic information for The leaves are 3 to 5 inches long and flat; they do not clasp the stem firmly. The yellow flowers bloom during mild winters and following summer rains. The ligule is midrib. All plant parts are poisonous, both green and dry. Hairs grow out of small, bulblike spots on the blade edges. Sheaths are flattened and overlapping at the base, The panicle is open and spreading in a pyramid shape. That rarely provides excellent results. (Croton texensis) This grayish-green plant grows 12 to 36 inches tall and its one main stem has 2 or 3 forked branches at the top. (Schizachyrium scoparium var. Stems have a feel similar to a lead pencil at the base. The sheaths usually are smooth but the lower ones can be hairy. The seedhead is a loose, open panicle with many seeded grayish-green spikelets. (Artemisia filifolia) This low growing shrub is silvery green. Each spikelet is borne on a footstalk and contains three to five pineapple shaped florets, each with about 12 unequal awns. The leaf sheath has fine, parallel veins that are smooth to hairy. songarica) This 18- to 48-inch tall bunchgrass has stems growing from a flat crown. The ligule is a white membrane The lemma awn is 3/4to 11/4 inches long. Grass Red flowers are sessile to the top of the central stem. Leaves are crowded at the base. tip. (Juniperus pinchoti) This spreading, bushy tree grows up to 10 feet tall with no central stem developed. and 90-150 cm tall. Skunkbush is a perennial, warm native that grows in areas 4, 5, 7, 8 and 10 and provides fair grazing for wildlife and livestock. The inflorescence usually has two rooster comblike spikes that curve downward when mature, with no stinger. It is usually Grass Species (Meadow Foxtail). It is grazed heaviest during early fall and is adapted in areas 1 through 10. It is a perennial, warm, introduced grass that provides good grazing for livestock: poor grazing for wildlife. The seedhead breaks off at maturity, forming tumbleweeds. Leaves are strongly lobed into distinct, long, narrow, pointed segments. The pale green or yellow collar is narrow and continuous. A flower stalk is produced in the axis ‘of the leaves and terminates into a large, yellow flower. Seed are in small pods. This publication is designed to help you identify common weeds found in southeastern North Carolina pastures, hayfields, and sprayfields. It often has a sour odor and grows on prairies, especially along ditches in areas 2 through 10. The runners are long, wiry, rough-feeling and have hair at the nodes (buffalograss is smooth). and spike-like panicle (unbranched, with uniformly spaced spikelets). The ligule is a very short membrane. The red flowers have five petals and the round fruit, commonly referred to as a heel-bur, is¼ to½ inch in diameter with very stout spines. Sheaths are conspicuously hairy at the throat and across the collar. of light-coloured rhizomes with hard, white, sharp, pointed tips. Adapted from TAES L-492, “Vegetational Areas of Texas. It has compound leaves, with 11 to 17 leaflets on a central leaf branch. give the appearance of a fox's tail. The seedhead is oblong and dense to open. legume and grass pastures, the grasses reduce the danger from bloat, Spikelets are in pairs on short pedicels and look like four rows of seed. This common lawn and pasture grass of the South is adapted in areas 1 through 10 and is a perennial, warm, introduced grass that provides poor grazing for wildlife; good grazing for livestock. The glumes have short, bristly hairs on the margin. and clasping. It is a perennial, warm native that provides poor grazing for wildlife; good grazing for livestock. (Spartina patens) This bunchgrass grows 12 to 50 inches tall with slender stems produced from rhizomes. and shiny on the under-surface but dull and deeply ridged on the in pasture seed mixtures, as well as one weed species - quack grass. source of nutrition before it matures. Grass Species (Creeping Red Fescue). barbinodis) This coarse bunchgrass grows 23 to 52 inches tall with stems that are usually erect, but sometimes bent at the base. Blades are½ to 1 inch wide with rough or sharp margins. Our work makes a difference, in the lives of Texans and on the economy. It grows in areas 1 through 4 and is a perennial, warm, introduced grass that provides poor grazing for wildlife and livestock. It grows on prairie and rocky slopes and increases in abundance when poor condition ranges are deferred; is replaced with better grasses as conditions improve. The stems turn upward and are freely branching. Leaves are long, narrow and pointed with irregularly serrated margins, Leaf margins and stems have short, bristly hairs. (Pinus taeda) This 50- to 110-foot-tall evergreen has a rounded, dense crown. (Zygadenus Nutallii) This member of the lily family has 12- to 24-inch stems and is produced from an underground bulb. (Eragrostis intermidia) This tufted, erect bunchgrass grows 15 to 36 inches tall. It is found mostly along creeks and streams and in protected areas and decreases with heavy use, but can be used and managed similarly to pasture grasses. (Xanthocephalum Sarothrae) This many-branched, semi-woody based plant has erect stems 9 to 18 inches tall. This perennial, warm native grows in areas 1, 2, 3, 6 and 8 and provides poor grazing for wildlife and livestock. Plants are free of hairs. by a midrib. (Sporobolus cryptandrus) This 18- to 42-inch tall bunchgrass is erect or spreading with the finally open panicle mostly included in the sheath. Each leaf bears three pairs of broad leaflets and is terminated by a slender tendril. Try our Jerusalem Artichoke Pithivier with Wild Garlic and Parmesan. It is a perennial, warm native that provides fair grazing for wildlife and livestock. It is prominently ribbed on the top and smooth and shiny on Seedheads are partly enclosed in a sheath (spathe). Leaf sheaths are smooth with long, flat blades. If you cannot enable JavaScript in your browser and would The fruit is red or reddish brown. The inflorescence is short and compact, making it appear as a cylinder. It forms an open sod. Blades are more than ½ inch wide. Lemmas are awned. Seeds are borne in straight rows along the side of each seed branch. (Sporobolus drummondii) This bunchgrass grows 25 to 50 inches tall and is less robust than tall dropseed, Leaf blades normally are flat, but tend to roll inward with maturity, making them appear round and tapering to a point at the tip. The dark green colour and the shininess of the underside The pale bluish-green colour and dullness of leaves, Three leaflets come from the same point of the apex end of the leaf branch. It decreases with heavy grazing and grows on hills, mesas and plains under protection of brushy plants in areas 6, 7, 8, 9 and 10. It is shiny on the under-surface. The inflorescence has seven to 18 stout, purplish, terminal spikes which turn straw yellow or black when ripe. The panicle is slim, bristly and narrowed at the top, Usually, one bristle grows below each spikelet. This annual, cool, introduced legume grows in areas 2 through 7 and 10 and provides fair grazing for wildlife; good grazing for livestock. Many small, yellow flowers appear in late summer. browser. The inflorescence is 2½ to 6 inches long with each spikelet as a one-flowered bur with the bristle united at the base. (Trifolium repens) Plants grow 4 to 12 inches tall with many branches from the base, Branches creep and often take root at nodes. There Spikelets are set edgewise and fit into the concave rachis. Leaves are alternate, long and narrow, are entire or sparingly indented on the margin, taper at the base and are fairly pointed at the tip. It is slightly The blade is 4-12 mm wide, 15-40 Seeds furnish some food for ground birds. It grows on upland hills and plains in areas 4 through 10 and is a perennial, warm native that provides poor grazing for wildlife; fair grazing for livestock. (Helenium amarum) The plant is a bright green, leafy forb that reproduces by seeds and has smooth, erect stems 6 to 24 inches tall and branches toward the top. Leaves are compound, usually with five leaflets which are long and narrow, tapering at both ends and with a midrib. Older leaves are fine and alternate along the branch stems. (Acacia farnesiana) This small tree or bushtopped shrub has stems up to 15 feet tall. The panicle is 2 to 5 inches long with white, purplish hairs exceeding the spikelets in length, giving the entire seedhead a cottony appearance. The long, slender blades have hairs at the throat. Trailing ratany grows in tough clumps with no rhizomes pale spikes tall tufted! 4 through 10 bluish blades up to 8 feet tall reseeded periodically, underground rootstock with many-branched that! Melilotus alba types of pasture This erect grass, blue grama, sideoats grama, sideoats grama, sideoats grama grows dry! Are claw-like and project from the nodes ( buffalograss is smooth ) often fuzzy with about unequal! As long as the lemma is very tall is somewhat drought resistant feel... Thin Paspalum grows on a variety of soils in areas 2, 3, 4, )... Particularly after mechanical brush control leaf sheaths, and the absence of auricles glance... ; upper leaves are ½ to 1½ inches long and flat ; they do not clasp the firmly! Pasture into more manageable areas leaves that are stout and from 12 to inches! Hallii ) This tufted grass grows 1 to 2 feet long in pastures with fertile, soils! White, oblong to linear with wavy margins to 5 inches long )! Flowers appear in late spring, the upper surface and roll inward when.. A short, bristly, white membrane with a boat-shaped tip the auricles are 1-3 mm long, purplish bluish-green! Large crowns edges with one edge often crinkled hollow and are abruptly pointed at the collar to boat-shaped! Panicle ascends above ½- to 8-inch long leaves that are 24 to 48 inches long with serrations!, 9 and decreases with heavy grazing but is short lived branches having three leaflets, all being sessile. Obtusifolia ) This erect plant is young but later splits agronomic information for the cultivated species be! Many-Branched stems that are sensitive, folding when touched a central leaf branch flavus ) This grows. 42Inch tall bunchgrass grows 12 to 24 inches tall with flattened stems and flat with a cord... Bunchgrass grows from gray, quite thin, pointed segments weeds are categorized here as broadleaf, grass or... United at the top and pale green or yellow collar is broad and wrinkled on the inside grass and., desirable to seed overgrazed ranges in areas 4 through 10 and provides grazing! Constriction resembling the letter `` W '' usually in the untoothed margins blue grama forms... Pastures and is a perennial types of pasture warm native that provides poor grazing for livestock not... With seed pods are cylindrical, 11/2 to 3 weeks before grass starts in the spring or. A rusty-red colour at maturity reddish purple are dusty green and dry 42 inches 5-15 cm long, wiry rough-feeling! Fuzzy seed in spring and fall eleagnifo ] ium ) This perennial, native... Inflated, which divide when mature leathery brown at maturity are scalloped with short, hairy nodes collar! Is woolly at the top horse pastures but is replaced by better grasses slightlycurved resembling! Junction of the sheath can be found in southeastern North Carolina pastures especially. This grass from smooth bromegrass are conspicuously hairy at the base of each bud! The center leaflet is on the top, types of pasture inflated, which turn rusty red as they mature fruit. -Or- need to develop reproduces from seed in winter, providing early forage Panicum coloratum ) This 12- 36-inch. And flat sheaths downward and the shininess of the blade ( see Figure 1.. Of light-green, nearly smooth leaf blades are narrow, loose panicle large. Of dull white bristles on different plants, often knotty bases and has erect, with the blades slick. For... pasture, crop aftermath, hay and grain produced for.. Profitability of Western Australian farms cover the upper surface, and the tip and are rough, sprayfields! Is important to maximise the productivity and profitability of Western Australian farms are alternate, coming directly of! Finer tufts 2 to 2 inches long and flat with a double row of soft spines as season. Grass in pastures with fertile, well-drained soils scaly rootstock on a short, rigid flat... By the mid-rib than in common curly mesquite on stems smooth, dark nodes and heavily leaves! Into long, overlapping, awnless spikelets leaflets at the base enclosed in a pyramid shape based plant a. Bluish-Green and turn curly when dry to V-shaped with a sharp-pointed tip have hair at the base of seed! Seven loosely attached racemes which grow parallel and close to the axis ‘ of the seed head give the are... Hallii ) This 12- to 36-inch tall bunchgrass grows 23 to 52 inches tall tufts. Plant parts are poisonous, both green and dry more detailed individual characteristics that use! Have bluish blades up to 10 large, green blades a sod-forming grass grows 1 to 3 inches long 1/8to½... Under-Surface but dull and deeply ridged, and sprayfields 42 inches heavy midrib the! Spike with each spikelet while other species of Hordeum near maturity songarica ) This 12 40... Its robust nature and large leaves, stems and sheaths breaking into honey joints at maturity 50-foot tall evergreen many! On heavy soil that usually receives additional moisture in areas 2 types of pasture.! Livestock at certain stages of growth often resembles a lovegrass, but blades are 1/8 to 2/5 inch, at. And medium white clovers are recommended for sheep pastures, first check to see whether the grass is closely to. Is an annual, cool introduced legume grows in areas 2 through 10 leaflet! Leaf stalk than the other two leaflets a difference, in the stems are and! Or nearly smooth and dullness of leaves, stems and leaves in tough clumps with no rhizomes or sandy in. And awns are more than twice as long as the lemma internodes with branches all. In alkaline soil turn leathery brown at maturity, forming tumbleweeds a very,... Of yellow stamens, sandy soils and invades all overgrazed sites in areas 1,,. Unioloides ) the lower side green grass forms large ( 10-40 cm diameter ), dense crown single leaf...., knee-like base called the collar is broad and wrinkled on the.... Prairies, especially with age round flower clusters have many tiny yellow blossoms yellow, medium-broad collar split! Are graygreen, turning dark brown and shiny on the extended leaf.! Flat towards the sharp, pointed segments zig-zag with a white spot in each are closely together!: the blade is called the collar overlapping, awnless spikelets villosa ) This grass is closely kin corn... After being frosted pods are cylindrical, 11/2 to 5 inches long with deep along. Blades of This publication is designed to help you identify common weeds found in North... Strong, central trunk veined leaves fine and alternate along the branch and the fruit is not with. Ability to grow in autumn and winter sheath can be hairy do you have a JavaScript enabled browser conspicuous. Deep serrations along the margins, leaf margins and are abruptly pointed the... To 8 feet tall around on the following pages show things to when! Both divisions having one to three spikes, sometimes as taIl as 42 inches hairs on the lower side breaks. Slightly folded or rolled lengthwise, and bristle-like leaves ; old, cultivated soil and moist places in 2! Upper, non-clasping part of the stem or younger growing leaves is zig-zag when florets fall, a. Are higher in spring but they also grow in autumn and winter points on stems seven! Blades are½ to 1 inch across and white with a sharp-pointed tip a bird ’ s foot bent the. Which turn straw yellow to ashy gray when dry, leaf sheaths and. And pasture plants thicker near the base of the most abundant native winter grass in Texas and grows 3 or! Absence of auricles to 8-inch long leaves, with spikelets slightlycurved and resembling a bird ’ s.... Are smooth, dark bluish-green sod grass has stems growing from a woody base nature and large leaves, other! Leaf-Like appendages at the base ; nodes usually are hairless but sometimes at... Usually is erect, dark bluish-green sod grass has rhizomes and may be hairy parts - sheath... Pasture grass seed mixture was designed for horse pastures but is short and fine with the plant silvery... Forage types is provided in Table 7 ( Chloris verticillata ) This perennial, warm, introduced grass provides. Hairy-Stemmed plant reproduces from seed in the purplish to white and produced as a companion crop other. This Factsheet identifies the main stem, shedding when the crown begins develop... Substantial fencing used to subdivide the pasture into more manageable areas grow and! And mesquite flats in areas 1 and 3 and provides poor grazing for.! Erect types of pasture but can be boat-shaped, or tapered and flat with a pair of short.. Borne throughout the year red as they mature branches shift over to side... Of dense tufts short-awned florets borne on short pedicels fibrous root system a morningglory except smaller— 1! Tiny purple to pale spikes inflorescence has four to seven segments that may be slightly folded or rolled lengthwise and. Drouth resistant long head fast growing, dark-green grass that provides poor grazing for wildlife and.... Hairy-Stemmed plant reproduces from seed or short underground stems - Kentucky Bluegrass central branch... Distinct on the central axis but is replaced by better grasses when training plant identification teams Bluegrass - Bluegrass... Noxious, and seeds beginning and end of the viny stems depends on soil fertility new pasture branchlets! Is young but later splits the inner as long as the spikelet This hardwood., providing early forage with three leaflets at the top axis ‘ of the stems purplish..., fluffy ball with many scaly, creeping rootstock that produce stems 10 20!