Kabul is the capital of Afghanistan and its largest city, located in the eastern section of the country. [120][121] During their rule, the Taliban and their allies committed massacres against Afghan civilians, denied UN food supplies to starving civilians and conducted a policy of scorched earth, burning vast areas of fertile land and destroying tens of thousands of homes. Some of the other leading hospitals in Kabul include the Jamhuriat Hospital and Jinnah Hospital. [363] Child marriage is prevalent in Afghanistan;[364] the legal age for marriage is 16. The population of Afghanistan was estimated at 32.9 million as of 2019 by the Afghanistan Statistics and Information Authority,[195] whereas the UN estimates over 38.0 million. [421] The Afghan Hound (a type of running dog) originated in Afghanistan and was formerly used in wolf hunting. The Mauryans controlled the area south of the Hindu Kush until they were overthrown in about 185 BCE. Including domestic airports, there are 43. A rail line between Khaf, Iran and Herat, western Afghanistan, intended for both freight and passengers, is under construction as of 2019. Scenario 2: The withdrawal of foreign troops from Afghanistan and the organization of a series of events (such as Iraq) in favor of ISIS and help ISIS to increase the group’s power in Afghanistan and create the necessary excuses for a permanent return, bolder and stronger than before. The International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) was established by the UN Security Council to help assist the Karzai administration and provide basic security. You can easily improve your search by … Tatoeba-2020.08. [80] He abandoned the reforms of Amanullah Khan in favor of a more gradual approach to modernization but was assassinated in 1933 by Abdul Khaliq, a fifteen-year-old Hazara student who was an Amanullah loyalist. [138], In December 2001, after the Taliban government was overthrown, the Afghan Interim Administration under Hamid Karzai was formed. 1 synonym for capital of Afghanistan: Kabul. It is a member of the United Nations, the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation, the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation, the Group of 77, the Economic Cooperation Organization, and the Non-Aligned Movement. [227] Presidential elections use the two-round system; if no candidate receives a majority of the vote in the first round, a second round will be held featuring the top two candidates. [306] The majority of electricity production is via hydropower, helped by the amount of rivers and streams that flow from the mountains. Kabul’s location at an altitude of 1790m, in a narrow valley of the Hindu Kush Mountains – makes it one of the highest capitals in the world. Soviet troops in more substantial numbers were deployed to stabilize Afghanistan under Karmal, marking the beginning of the Soviet–Afghan War. Over the next decade, ISAF and Afghan troops led many offensives against the Taliban, but failed to fully defeat them. 1 Min Read. It shares borders with Pakistan in the south and east (including Indian-claimed Gilgit-Baltistan); Iran in the west; Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, and Tajikistan in the north; and China in the far east.[175]. The team eventually made it and played in the 2015 Cricket World Cup. Bomb blast kills deputy governor of Afghanistan's capital. [292], Michael E. O'Hanlon of the Brookings Institution estimated that if Afghanistan generates about $10 billion per year from its mineral deposits, its gross national product would double and provide long-term funding for Afghan security forces and other critical needs. [245] Today, several NATO member states deploy about 17,000 troops in Afghanistan as part of the Resolute Support Mission. The19th-century Queen’s Palace, located in the southeast corner of the garden, is regularly used for cultural events including exhibitions and music recitals. In recent years, there has been an uptick in saffron production, which authorities and farmers are trying to replace poppy cultivation. [224] Loya jirgas have been held since at least 1747,[225] with the most recent one occurring in 2013. [222][223], One instrument of Afghan governance is the loya jirga (grand assembly), a Pashtun consultative meeting that is mainly organized for choosing a new head of state, adopting a new constitution, or to settle national or regional issue such as war. KABUL, Afghanistan (AP) — The Islamic State group on Saturday attacked the Afghan capital with a barrage of mortar shells, killing at least one civilian and wounding a second, according to the Interior Ministry, amid a countrywide spike in violence. SCAN-TELE-01443265 Close relations with the Muslim states Turkey, the Kingdom of Iraq and Iran/Persia were also pursued, while further international relations were sought by joining the League of Nations in 1934. In response to urban growth, additional municipal districts have been created as needed. [114] The Taliban emerged in September 1994 as a movement and militia of students (talib) from Islamic madrassas (schools) in Pakistan,[113][115] who soon had military support from Pakistan. Kidnapping for ransom and robberies are common in major cities. It quickly turned into a proxy war as the Pakistani government provided these rebels with covert training centers, the United States supported them through Pakistan's Inter-Services Intelligence (ISI),[87] and the Soviet Union sent thousands of military advisers to support the PDPA regime. [374] Some crafters express their feelings through the designs of rugs; for example after the outbreak of the Soviet-Afghan War, "war rugs" were created with designs representing pain and misery caused by the conflict. [310] In particular an important region for domestic and international tourism is the picturesque Bamyan Valley, which includes lakes, canyons and historical sites, helped by the fact it is in a safe area away from insurgent activity. [330] These lines are used for freight only and there is no passenger service. Their decline began 60 years after Ashoka's rule ended, leading to the Hellenistic reconquest by the Greco-Bactrians. Occupying 652,000 square kilometers (252,000 sq mi), it is a mountainous country with plains in the north and southwest. All parts of Afghanistan are considered dangerous due to militant activities and terrorism-related incidents. The PDPA declared the establishment of the Democratic Republic of Afghanistan, with its first leader named as People's Democratic Party general secretary Nur Muhammad Taraki. [376] In some of the Turkic-populated areas in the north-west, bride and wedding ceremony prices are driven by the bride's weaving skills. The provincial governors are appointed by the President of Afghanistan, and the district governors are selected by the provincial governors. The following is a list of all the 34 provinces in alphabetical order: Afghanistan became a member of the United Nations in 1946. It is the largest urban center in the country and also its political and economic hub. [149][150] Meanwhile, Karzai attempted to unite the peoples of the country,[151] and the Afghan government was able to build some democratic structures, adopting a constitution in 2004 with the name Islamic Republic of Afghanistan. Snow leopards, Siberian tigers and brown bears live in the high elevation alpine tundra regions. The development in the 1950s of new neighbourhoods, such as Kheyrkhāneh to the northwest and Kārteh-ye Seh and Kōteh-ye SangÄ« to the southwest, resulted in secondary hubs of commerce and residential development, with some government functions being decentralized to these parts. At least eight civilians killed in the brazen attack and dozens wounded as the Taliban denies involvement. Kabul is the capital city of Afghanistan and the largest urban center. [240] The functions of provincial councils are to take part in provincial development planning and to participate in the monitoring and appraisal of other provincial governance institutions. [280] Afghan rugs are becoming popular again, allowing many carpet dealers around the country to hire more workers; in 2016–17 it was the fourth most exported group of items. [132], In October 2001, the United States invaded Afghanistan to remove the Taliban from power after they refused to hand over Osama Bin Laden, the prime suspect of the September 11 attacks, who was a "guest" of the Taliban and was operating his al-Qaeda network in Afghanistan. Dictionary entry overview: What does capital of Afghanistan mean? The National Archives, in the Āsmāʾī Wāt area, has an excellent collection of rare manuscripts, but access is restricted. [382][383] A notable art style that developed in Afghanistan and eastern Pakistan is Gandhara Art, produced by a fusion of Greco-Roman art and Buddhist art between the 1st and 7th centuries CE. By the middle of the 6th century BCE, the Achaemenids overthrew the Medes and incorporated Arachosia, Aria, and Bactria within its eastern boundaries. Afghanistan is bordered by Pakistan to the east and south; Iran to the west; Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, and Tajikistan to the north; and China to the northeast. [201], Dari and Pashto are the official languages of Afghanistan; bilingualism is very common. Afghanistan has around 350 radio stations and over 200 television stations. A further 10 other ethnic groups are recognized and each are represented in the Afghan National Anthem. A regional investigation based on fertility inhibiting determinants", "The roots of Afghanistan's tribal tensions", "What will happen to Afghanistan's national languages? [355] In the southern and eastern region, the people live according to the Pashtun culture by following Pashtunwali (the Pashtun way). [19] The political history of the modern state of Afghanistan began with the Hotak dynasty, whose founder Mirwais Hotak declared southern Afghanistan independent in 1709. Kabul is the capital of Afghanistan and its largest city, located in the eastern section of the country. Bomb Blast Kills Deputy Governor of Afghanistan's Capital By Reuters , Wire Service Content Dec. 15, 2020 By Reuters , Wire Service Content Dec. 15, 2020, at 1:01 a.m. capital of Afghanistan traduzione nel dizionario inglese - italiano a Glosbe, dizionario online, gratuitamente. [128][116][129][130][131] By 2000 the Northern Alliance only controlled 10% of territory, cornered in the north-east. [305] As of 2016, Afghanistan produces 1,400 megawatts of power, but still imports the majority of electricity via transmission lines from Iran and the Central Asian states. However, up to the 19th century the term Khorasan was commonly used among natives to describe their country, Sir George Elphinstone wrote with amazement that the country known to outsiders as "Afghanistan" was referred to by its own inhabitants as "Khorasan" and that the first Afghan official whom he met at the border welcomed him to Khorasan.[60][61][62][63]. [147][148] The Taliban began an insurgency to regain control of Afghanistan. [176] The country imports over $7 billion worth of goods but exports only $784 million, mainly fruits and nuts. Bombing and shooting in Afghanistan’s capital city Kabul on Tuesday, December 15, killed the Deputy Governor of Kabul, Mohibullah Mohammadi, and his secretary. Therefore, "Afghanistan" translates to "land of the Afghans," or "land of the Pashtuns" in a historical sense. China wins $700 million Afghan oil and gas deal. Coming from Iran, the trail traveled through various Afghan provinces and cities including Herat, Kandahar and Kabul before crossing to northern Pakistan, northern India, and Nepal. [164] A report titled Body Count concluded that 106,000–170,000 civilians have been killed as a result of the fighting in Afghanistan at the hands of all parties to the conflict. Villages typically have a headman (malik), a master for water disribution (mirab) and a religious teacher (mullah). [74] He died in 1901, replaced by his son Habibullah Khan. [1] Dari, which is a variety of and mutually intelligible with Persian (and very often called 'Farsi' by some Afghans like in Iran) functions as the lingua franca in Kabul as well as in much of the northern and northwestern parts of the country. [293] The United States Geological Survey (USGS) estimated in 2006 that northern Afghanistan has an average 460 million m3 (2.9 billion bbl) of crude oil, 440 billion m3 (15.7 trillion cu ft) of natural gas, and 67 billion L (562 million US bbl) of natural gas liquids. Serious traffic accidents are common on Afghan roads and highways, particularly on the Kabul–Kandahar and the Kabul–Jalalabad Road. Amid a state of anarchy and factional infighting,[109][110][111] various mujahideen factions committed widespread rape, murder and extortion,[110][112][113] while Kabul was heavily bombarded and partially destroyed by the fighting. [220] A January 2010 report published by the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime revealed that bribery consumed an amount equal to 23% of the GDP of the nation. [55] Mongol rule continued with the Ilkhanate in the northwest while the Khalji dynasty administered the Afghan tribal areas south of the Hindu Kush until the invasion of Timur (aka Tamerlane), who established the Timurid Empire in 1370. In a mosque on the outskirts of Afghanistan's capital, Kabul, a preacher crowed to assembled men and boys: The Taliban, with their primitive … [32] Throughout millennia several cities within the modern day Afghanistan served as capitals of various empires, namely Bactra (Balkh), Alexandria on the Oxus (Ai-Khanoum), Kapisi, Sigal, Kabul, Kunduz, Zaranj, Firozkoh, Herat, Ghazna (Ghazni), Binban (Bamyan), and Kandahar. A car bomb killed eight people and wounded more than 15 others in Kabul Sunday, officials said, the latest attack to rock the Afghan capital. Kabul has historically been the melting pot of the diverse ethnic groups who inhabit Afghanistan. "Ecological Footprint Accounting for Countries: Updates and Results of the National Footprint Accounts, 2012–2018", https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/EG.ELC.ACCS.ZS?end=2018&locations=AF&start=2005&view=chart, "Afghanistan Has Capacity To Produce 310,000MW Power", "Afghanistan Resurrects its Largest Hydropower Plant Toward a Brighter Future", "Power to the People: How to extend Afghans' access to electricity", "The Power of Nature: How Renewable Energy is Changing Lives in Afghanistan", "20,000 foreign tourists visit Afghanistan annually", "Coronavirus shatters tourism hopes in Afghanistan's Bamyan province", "More than 200,000 tourists visit Bamyan this year", "When Afghanistan was just a laid-back highlight on the hippie trail", "Bamyan, First Ever Cultural Capital of South Asia: A big party, but what else? The 1930s saw the development of roads, infrastructure, the scheduled 2015 parliamentary elections were delayed until.! 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